Check out Martin Woosters review of the Cato Encyclopedia.
Incidentally, I cant agree with Woosters claim that the leading thinkers among the Progressives… were generally free of racial prejudice. Perhaps the three names he cites were; I dont know. But racism played a large role in a great deal of Progressive thought (Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson are obvious examples). Woosters contrast between racism and eugenics is also puzzling, given how deeply pervaded eugenics was by racist ideas (and vice versa).
Eugene Debs was also a racist.
Debs was vocally anti-racist. You’re probably thinking of his rival Victor Berger.
Apparently Debs made some racist (or “ethnicist”?) comments about Italian immigrants, so I take that back. Apparently it’s possible to be ahead of your time when it comes to black-white relations but regressive when it comes to southern Europeans.
Jules Verne wrote some quite good material attacking the treatment of blacks (A Captain at Fifteen) and Native Americans (Martin Paz) but was crudely anti-Semitic (Martin Paz again, Hector Servadac).