Cordial and Sanguine, Part 63: From the Unthinking Depths

[cross-posted at BHL]

Mike Munger maintains that libertarians should stop being “reflexively opposed to government”; should recognise that “in some instances, it is possible that the State is useful for advancing liberty”; and should give “empirical claims about consequences … a central place in the debate.” But he warns that this will require libertarians to “actually … think about stuff,” a requirement that he suggests will be unwelcome to his “Austrian colleagues.”

As one of his unthinking Austrian colleagues, let me offer three points in rebuttal:

1. The state is anti-liberty (and anti-equality) not just in its consequences but also inherently. After all, the state is by definition a violent monopolist. This isn’t some eccentric definition that libertarians came up with; this definition, or some variant thereof, is the standard mainstream sociological account. If the state claims for itself certain rights of action that it forcibly denies to others, then freedom of competition and equality of legal status are already curtailed in virtue of that fact alone, regardless of what further consequences this institution has.

2. As regards the state’s consequences, however, the Austrian tradition has never opposed empirical research. The traditional Austrian position (not universally accepted even among Austrians, however) is that the principles of economics – what Misesians call the province of praxeology – are a priori rather than empirical. (I defend this position here.) But the application of those principles to particular contingent circumstances – what Misesians call the province of thymology – has never been regarded by any Austrians as a priori. Mises and Rothbard are perfectly clear on this, as is Hayek in The Counter-revolution of Science.
Empirical methods are perfectly in order in determining which principles apply to particular situations, and where and how they do so; admittedly the Austrian conception of empirical method, with its debt to the Verstehen tradition, is somewhat broader than, say, the mere use of statistics, but it does include the latter. And in fact, accordingly, Austrians have been doing empirical work all along, as is obvious from the briefest glance at Austrian publications. (See, e.g., the archives of the QJAE and the RAE.) To suggest that Austrians have simply been sitting on their butts intoning “the state is bad, apodictically bad” and offering no evidence, is to fly in the face of … well, empirical evidence.

3. Mike closes by urging libertarians to “attract people who mistrust concentrations of power in any setting, whether corporate or governmental.” On this point I thoroughly agree with him (hence my enthusiastic support for the work of the Center for a Stateless Society and the Alliance of the Libertarian Left, and for writers like Kevin A. Carson); and this is indeed an area where the Austrian tradition is sometimes (not always) lacking. But surely the way for libertarians, Austrian or otherwise, to win over those who mistrust concentrations of power both corporate and governmental is to increase our critical scrutiny of corporate power, not to relax our critical scrutiny of governmental power. After all, empirical research – including Austrian empirical research – has shown that these two forms of power are mutually reinforcing far more than they are mutually antagonistic.

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Bad Dad

So Carrie Fisher’s daughter Billie Lourd is reportedly being cast as a young Princess Leia in Star Wars VII. There’s been no official confirmation of this yet AFAIK; and always in motion is the future.

Carrie Fisher, left; Billie Lourd, right

But suppose it’s true. That probably implies a flashback. (I say “probably” because it could always be a holo-recording or something.) So the question is: why do the makers of this film want to include a flashback, and in particular one focusing on Leia? I offer a hypothesis.

Of all the Star Wars characters who are a) extremely popular, and b) not still alive in this movie, which would audiences most like to see in a flashback? Surely the answer is: Darth Vader. A Star Wars geek like Abrams would presumably love to direct a scene with Vader; and the suits at Disney would doubtless love to see Vader using his money-attracting powers in their new film. Hence the attraction of a flashback in a series that has not heretofore been big on flashbacks.

So where does Leia come in? Well, in the original movie when we first see Vader confronting Leia, he says, “You weren’t on any mercy mission this time,” implying a previous interaction. (A 1981 Star Wars radio-play even dramatises that previous interaction.) Might Abrams’ flashback be to that purported “mercy mission”?

“Plotting to overthrow the government, young lady? You are grounded!”
“But Daaad …”

If so, it’s possible that Tarkin will be in it too, since Leia’s words “I should have expected to find you holding Vader’s leash; I recognized your foul stench when I was brought onboard” suggest both that she’d met Tarkin before and that he’d been in Vader’s company when she did.

Why, diegetically, might there be a flashback in Ep. VII? Perhaps as part of some Jedi meditation trance on Leia’s part. (And if they want to have a meditation flashback for Luke too, well, Abrams can always just clean up and enhance the deleted Tatooine scenes from Ep. IV. Maybe Koo Stark will finally have her Star Wars moment on the big screen!)

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