Archive | December 7, 2008


This report gives a bit more of the background to the recent anarchist riots in Athens, but not much.

Having walked through Exarchia last spring, I have to laugh at the story’s description of it as a “dense warren of concrete”; if all that means is that there are lots of narrow streets criss-crossing between tall concrete buildings, okay, that would describe most of the city.

DeCleyrations of Independence

In a letter to her mother Harriet de Claire in 1893, Voltairine de Cleyre wrote: “to me, any dependence, any thing which destroys the complete selfhood of the individual, is in the line of slavery …. It is communism, and communism, in any form, is revolting to me.” In the same year, in her speech “In Defense of Emma Goldman,” she observed: “Miss Goldman is a Communist; I am an Individualist. She wishes to destroy the right of property; I wish to assert it.” And in “The Individualist and the Communist” (also 1893) she was even willing to call herself, albeit with tongue somewhat in cheek, a “Capitalistic Anarchist.”

Voltairine de Cleyre In later years she moved away from her early attachment to the Tucker-style “individualist anarchist” position, noting in “The Economic Phase of Anarchism,” that “the thought of the anarchist policeman … has driven me out of the individualist’s camp.“ But although she became more sympathetic to anarcho-communists like Goldman and Kropotkin, she never abandoned her opposition to communism per se, which she continued to regard as a stifling and oppressive system; and while she condemned what she called “property,” like Proudhon she distinguished possession based on labour from that not so based, approving the former and (usually) reserving the pejorative (for her) term “property” for the latter. (Still, it’s fair to say that her views on land ownership grew less economically individualist over the course of her career – unlike Proudhon’s, which arguably grew more economically individualist.)

In Anarchism (1901), A Correction (1907), and Our Present Attitude (1908), de Cleyre cleyrified her position; I’ve now added these to the Molinari Institute’s online library.

Incidentally, while de Cleyre may have rejected some specific positions that she called “individualist anarchism,” the version of anarchism that she defended was certainly an individualistic one, so I am happy to call her an individualist anarchist. (I also think she somewhat overstates the difference between Tucker’s and Lum’s versions of anarchism, exaggerating Tucker’s atomistic side in order to make Lum seem a more dramatic improvement over Tucker.) It might be stretching things too far to call her later views market anarchism, inasmuch she was somewhat suspicious, if not of market exchange per se, then at least of attempts to base social order on market exchange. Still, she certainly wasn’t an anti-market anarchist, since she advocated leaving people free to try out any form of economic interaction they liked, market-based or otherwise – and what more than this does market anarchism ask?

Hugo on Ressentiment

Victor Hugo and Friedrich Nietzsche In 1869, several years before Nietzsche published his famous analysis of ressentiment in such works as Thus Spoke Zarathustra’s “Flies of the Marketplace” or The Genealogy of Morals’ “Good and Evil, Good and Bad,” Victor Hugo published his novel The Man Who Laughs. In the following chapters Hugo offers a striking anticipation of Nietzsche:

Barkilphedro Gnaws His Way
Hate Is As Strong As Love
The Flame Which Would Be Seen If Man Were Transparent

It would be interesting to know whether Nietzsche read The Man Who Laughs.  (Nietzsche’s passing references to Hugo are dismissive.)  Also, inasmuch as both Hugo and Nietzsche were early favourites of Rand’s, I wonder how much of the portrayal of ressentiment in her novels came from Hugo and not, as is usually assumed, from Nietzsche?

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